Cultivation, Processing & Growing Cannabis

In the context of cannabis, cultivation refers to the process of growing cannabis plants, typically for the purpose of harvesting and using its various components, such as the flowers, leaves, and seeds. This process involves a range of activities, from the selection of suitable strains and seeds, preparation of the growing medium, care for the plants as they grow, to the eventual harvesting and processing of the plant material.

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top 13 cannabinoids

Amidst the recent flurry of high-level regulatory debates concerning the definition and classification of cannabinoids, we at CannaList see this as an opportune moment to delve into the scientific aspects … Read more

What does growing mean in cannabis?

A scientific paper titled “Global patterns of domestic cannabis cultivation: Sample characteristics and patterns of growing across eleven countries” by Gary Potter et al. [1] provides an overview of the methods and scale of cannabis cultivation operations across different countries. The authors highlight the demographic characteristics of cannabis growers, their experiences with growing cannabis, and their reasons for doing so.

This study provides a glimpse into the world of cannabis cultivation, shedding light on the practices and motivations of those who grow this plant. However, it’s important to note that the specifics of cannabis cultivation can vary widely depending on factors such as the legal status of cannabis in a given jurisdiction, the intended use of the harvested cannabis, and the individual grower’s knowledge and resources.

What are the 4 cultivation stages of a cannabis plant?

cannabis stages

The cultivation of cannabis refers to the process of growing and nurturing cannabis plants. This process involves several stages, each with its unique requirements and challenges.

A scientific paper[2] provides insights into the cultivation process, particularly focusing on the vegetative stage of cannabis growth. The authors discuss the importance of optimal fertilization during this stage when using coir-based organic substrates.

The four main stages of cannabis plant growth are:

  1. Germination: This is the initial stage where the seed’s outer shell breaks down, and the tiny seedling begins to emerge.
  2. Seedling Stage: The young plant develops its first set of leaves and begins to photosynthesize.
  3. Vegetative Stage: The plant enters a phase of rapid growth, developing a robust root system and fuller foliage. This stage is crucial for the overall health and yield of the plant.
  4. Flowering Stage: The plant starts producing buds, and the cannabinoids (like THC and CBD) begin to form. This stage requires careful monitoring to ensure optimal cannabinoid production.

Each stage requires specific care, including appropriate light, temperature, humidity, and nutrient levels. Understanding these stages and their requirements is crucial for successful cannabis cultivation.

What are the first signs of cannabis flowering?

In the context of cannabis, the flowering stage is a critical phase in the plant’s life cycle. This is when the plant produces the buds that are harvested for their high cannabinoid content. The first signs of flowering in cannabis can be subtle but are typically characterized by the emergence of small, hair-like structures called pistils at the nodes of the plant.

cannabis flowering

The previous paper [2] also provides insights into the cultivation process, particularly focusing on the vegetative stage of cannabis growing. The authors discuss the importance of optimal fertilization during this stage when using coir-based organic substrates.

While this paper does not directly discuss the first signs of flowering, it provides valuable information on the cultivation process that precedes this stage. It’s important to note that the transition from the vegetative stage to the flowering stage is a critical period in the plant’s life cycle and requires careful monitoring and management to ensure optimal yield and cannabinoid production.

How long does it take for a growing cannabis cutting?

The time it takes to grow a cannabis cutting can vary depending on several factors, including the specific strain of cannabis, the growing conditions, and the care provided to the plant. However, the study[3] provides some insights.

The researchers developed an in vitro propagation protocol for medical Cannabis sativa L. cultivars. The aim of the protocol was to reduce the culture time while offering healthy and aseptic propagating material. The propagation procedure was performed using plastic autoclavable vented and non-vented vessels, containing porous rooting fine-milled sphagnum peat moss-based sponges, impregnated in ½ Murashige and Skoog liquid growth medium, supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at various concentrations or by dipping nodal cuttings into 15 mM IBA aqueous solution.

The study found that root initiation of in vitro-propagated cuttings commenced during the third week of culture, depending on the rooting treatment. It’s important to note that this is the time for root initiation, and additional time would be required for the plant to fully develop and mature.

What is the best extraction process for cannabis?

The extraction process for cannabis is a critical step in obtaining high-quality cannabis products. It involves separating the desired cannabinoids and other beneficial compounds from the plant material. The best extraction process can vary depending on the desired end product and its intended use. However, supercritical CO2 extraction is often considered one of the most effective and efficient methods for extracting cannabis.

cannabis extraction

In the paper[4], we can observe a detailed examination of this process. The authors evaluated the oil extraction process from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. The study found that the optimal condition for obtaining the highest oil recovery and the best oil quality within the experimental range of the variables studied was at a temperature of 60 °C, frequency of 20 Hz, and using a nozzle of ID 6 mm. The residual oil in the press cake was totally extracted by supercritical CO2 in a newly designed supercritical fluid extraction system.

Supercritical CO2 extraction is favored due to its efficiency, non-toxicity, and the ability to fine-tune the extraction process to target specific compounds. It uses carbon dioxide (CO2) under high pressure and temperature to isolate, preserve, and maintain the purity of the medicinal oil. This method ensures high potency and purity of the final product.


1. Potter, G., Barratt, M. J., Malm, A., Bouchard, M., Blok, T., Christensen, A. S., Decorte, T., Frank, V. A., Hakkarainen, P., Klein, A., Lenton, S., Perälä, J., Werse, B., & Wouters, M. (2015). Global patterns of domestic cannabis cultivation: Sample characteristics and patterns of growing across eleven countries. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.12.007.

2. Caplan, D., Dixon, M. J., & Zheng, Y. (2017). Optimal Rate of Organic Fertilizer during the Vegetative-stage for Cannabis Grown in Two Coir-based Substrates. DOI: 10.21273/hortsci11903-17

3. Ioannidis, K., Tomprou, I., & Mitsis, V. (2022). An Alternative In Vitro Propagation Protocol of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) Presenting Efficient Rooting, for Commercial Production. DOI: 10.3390/plants11101333

4. Aladić, K., Jokić, S., Moslavac, T., Tomas, S., Vidović, S., Vladić, J., & Šubarić, D. (2015). Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil. DOI: 10.15255/cabeq.2013.1895